Grid or gallery view
Have a grid or gallery view ('cards' I've seen it called as well) for all notes, which shows either the top most photo in a note or perhaps a chosen cover image (see notion gallery view, or google docs grid view, or google keep as examples).
Another implementation could be like how onenote does it, where if there is a photo in the note it shows up as a thumbnail in the list instead of the little note 'placeholder' icon. Perhaps I think a grid view would have more use cases though. Or maybe why not both?